Chinese technical specialists that flourished from the third century BCE to the fifth century CE. White fang study guide pdf’ or ‘popular Taoists,’ since all such arts were later incorporated in the Taoist religion.
Only in specific cases depending on contexts, should the term be translated ‘magicians,’ ‘alchemists,’ or ‘immortalists. The word “fang” in its various common contexts meant “efficacious,” “formulaic,” “parallel,” “correlative,” “comparative,” “medicinal,” “spiritual,” or “esoteric. Each of these meanings is potentially a factor in the etymology of the term. Ch’in and Han courts, the name expressed some essential quality of these people. Virtually all the fang-shih prominent enough to be included in dynastic histories specialized in only one of these areas. The writings we have, not a random sample, are of high literary quality. Early stories about technicians often have them confounding philosophers.
If he did, it tended to be obtained irregularly, most often as an imperial gesture. He usually held conventional moral and political opinions, if we can rely on the record, but the stigma of inappropriate technical enthusiasms, however faint, is commonly visible. At the same time descriptions of him never limn the full humanity, the mastery of the social Way, of the more conventional great. French translation of the same biographies. Treatise on the Feng and Shan Sacrifices” of the “Records of the Grand Historian”. Song Wuji, Zhengbo Qiao, Chong Shang, Xianmen Gao, and Zui Hou were all men of Yan who practiced magic and followed the way of the immortals, discarding their mortal forms and changing into spiritual beings by means of supernatural aid.