Wave energy conversion pdf

This article is about a scheme for harvesting wave energy conversion pdf power from nuclear fusion. Ordering the charged particles into linear beam. Separation of positives and negatives.

Separating the ions into groups, by their energy. Gathering these ions as they touch collectors. Using these collectors as the positive side in a circuit. Post argued that the efficiency was theoretically determined by the number of collectors. Designs in the early 1970s by William Barr and Ralph Moir used metal ribbons at an angle to collect these ions. Those metal ribbon-like surfaces are more transparent to ions going forward than to ions going backward.

They then see opaque surfaces and are caught. Thus ions are sorted by energy with high-energy ions being caught on high-potential electrodes. William Barr and Ralph Moir then ran a group which did a series of direct energy conversion experiments through the late 1970s and early 1980s. The first experiments used beams of positives and negatives as fuel, and demonstrated energy capture at a peak efficiency of 65 percent and a minimum efficiency of 50 percent. Suppressor grids then reflect the electrons, and collector anodes recovered the ion energy by slowing them down and collecting them at high-potential plates.

This machine demonstrated an energy capture efficiency of 48 percent. Debye length distance would be very challenging in practice, though he said that this problem would not occur in every version of this technology. A second type of electrostatic converter initially proposed by Post, then developed by Barr and Moir, is the Periodic Electrostatic Focusing concept. Like the Venetian Blind concept, it is also a direct collector, but the collector plates are disposed in many stages along the longitudinal axis of an electrostatic focusing channel. As each ion is decelerated along the channel toward zero energy, the particle becomes “over-focused” and is deflected sideways from the beam, then collected. A column of plasma is compressed by a magnetic field that acts like a piston. The compression heats the plasma to the thermonuclear ignition temperature.

A voltage is induced and collected in the electromagnetic coil. He fusion reactions, whose energy is too high for electrostatic converters. Original direct converters were designed to extract the energy carried by 100 to 800 keV ions produced by D-T fusion reactions. The converter operates at 5 MHz and requires a magnetic field of only 0. Energy is collected from the charged particles as they spiral past quadrupole electrodes. More classical electrostatic collectors would also be used for particles with energy less than 1 MeV. Those X-rays can not be converted into electric power with the various electrostatic and magnetic direct energy converters listed above, and their energy is lost.

Those photoelectric converters are composed of X-ray absorber and electron collector sheets nested concentrically in an onion-like array. Indeed, since X-rays can go through far greater thickness of material than electrons can, many layers are needed to absorb most of the X-rays. Direct Conversion of Thermal Energy of High Temperature Plasma”. BNES Nuclear Fusion Reactor Conference. Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Oxfordshire, U.

Livermore: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 2004. 7th Symposium on Engineering Problems of Fusion Research. Experimental results from a beam direct converter at 100 kV”. Generic issues for direct conversion of fusion energy from alternative fuels”. Test results on plasma direct converters”. Texas Symposium on Technology of Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion Experiments and the Engineering Aspects of Fusion Reactors. Magnetic Field Confinement of Laser Irradiated Solid Particle Plasmas”.

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