This process takes place over many generations. It is one of the basic phenomena of biology. The illustration of bird beaks shows an obvious sign of their different ways of life. For the major adaptations, what changes is not a single trait, the simple life charles wagner pdf a whole group of features.
Adaptation occurs because the better adapted animals are the most likely to survive, and to reproduce successfully. Adaptation could no longer be considered a static condition, a product of a creative past, and became instead a continuing dynamic process. Many aspects of an animal or plant can be correctly called adaptations, though there are always some features whose function is in doubt. Adaptation is one of the two main processes that explain the diverse species we see in biology. An organism must be viable at all stages of its development and at all stages of its evolution. Adaptation, then, affects all aspects of the life of an organism.
Important adaptations do not come singly. They come in groups, which work together to make the animal or plant successful in its particular niche or life-style. Woodpecker adaptations are a good example of how a whole suite of features are needed for a successful way of life. Many of the foraging, breeding and signalling behaviours of woodpeckers involve drumming and hammering using the bill. This steers the impact force downwards, away from the brain.