Plumbing in building construction pdf

Plumbing in building construction pdf Building Codes Division, oregon. A list of the main sections of the Oregon BCD web site.

Need to renew a license? Improvement was very slow, with little effective progress made until the growth of modern densely populated cities in the 1800s. Earlier, the waste disposal system had merely consisted of collecting waste and dumping it on the ground or into a river. United States from the late 1800s until around 1960. After that period, copper piping took over, first soft copper with flared fittings, then with rigid copper tubing utilizing soldered fittings.

At this time, copper piping was introduced as a better and safer alternative to lead pipes. Lead water pipes were still widely used in the early 20th century, and remain in many households. What often causes confusion is the large amount of evidence of widespread lead poisoning, particularly amongst those who would have had easy access to piped water. London and elsewhere during the 16th and 17th centuries. The pipes were hollowed-out logs, which were tapered at the end with a small hole in which the water would pass through.

The multiple pipes were then sealed together with hot animal fat. They were often used in Montreal and Boston in the 1800s, and built-up wooden tubes were widely used in the USA during the 20th century. These pipes, used in place of corrugated iron or reinforced concrete pipes, were made of sections cut from short lengths of wood. Locking of adjacent rings with hardwood dowel pins produced a flexible structure. About 100,000 feet of these wooden pipes were installed during WW2 in drainage culverts, storm sewers and conduits, under highways and at army camps, naval stations, airfields and ordnance plants.

A plastic water pipe being installed. The difference between pipes and tubes is simply in the way it is sized. These sizing schemes allow for universal adaptation of transitional fittings. 2″ tubing, and therefore requires either a threaded male or female adapter to connect them. When used in agricultural irrigation, the singular form “pipe” is often used as a plural. Pipe is available in rigid “joints”, which come in various lengths depending on the material. PeX and CPVC tubing also comes in rigid “joints” or flexible rolls.

The temper of the copper, that is whether it is a rigid “joint” or flexible roll, does not affect the sizing. The thicknesses of the water pipe and tube walls can vary. Pipe wall thickness increases with schedule, and is available in schedules 20, 40, 80, and higher in special cases. The schedule is largely determined by the operating pressure of the system, with higher pressures commanding greater thickness. Because piping and tubing are commodities, having a greater wall thickness implies higher initial cost. Thicker walled pipe generally implies greater durability and higher pressure tolerances. Wall thickness does not affect pipe or tubing size.

2″ K or M copper. The same applies to pipe schedules. As a result, a slight increase in pressure losses is realized due to a decrease in flowpath as wall thickness is increased. Hollowed wooden logs wrapped in steel banding were used for plumbing pipes, particularly water mains. Logs were used for water distribution in England close to 500 years ago. US cities began using hollowed logs in the late 1700s through the 1800s.

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