Symptoms typically mastitis in dairy cows pdf local pain and redness. Onset is typically fairly rapid and usually occurs within the first few months of delivery. Diagnosis is typically based on symptoms.
Prevention is by frequently and properly breastfeeding. Breastfeeding should typically be continued, as emptying the breast is important for healing. Lactation mastitis usually affects only one breast and the symptoms can develop quickly. The affected breast can then start to appear lumpy and red. Contact should be made with a health care provider with special breastfeeding competence as soon as the patient recognizes the combination of signs and symptoms. Most of the women first experience the flu-like symptoms and just after they may notice a sore red area on the breast.
During lactation, breast abscess develops only rarely, most sources cite about 0. Known risk factors are age over 30, primiparous and late delivery. No correlation was found with smoking status however this may be in part because much fewer smoking women choose to breastfeed. Since the 1980s mastitis has often been divided into non-infectious and infectious sub-groups. It has been shown that types and amounts of potentially pathogenic bacteria in breast milk are not correlated to the severity of symptoms. Many healthy breastfeeding women wishing to donate breast milk have potentially pathogenic bacteria in their milk but have no symptoms of mastitis. Milk stasis can lead to the milk ducts in the breasts becoming blocked, as the breast milk is not being properly and regularly expressed.
Mastitis may occur when the baby is not appropriately attached to the breast while feeding, when the baby has infrequent feeds or has problems suckling the milk out of the breast. The presence of cracks or sores on the nipples increases the likelihood of infection. Tight clothing or ill-fitting bras may also cause problems as they compress the breasts. In such cases, the removal of the foreign body is indicated. Recent research suggests that infectious pathogens play a much smaller role in the pathogenesis than was commonly assumed only a few years ago. Most detected pathogens are very common species that are natural part of the breast fauna and simple detection of their presence is not sufficient to prove a causative role. When it occurs in breastfeeding mothers, it is known as puerperal mastitis, lactation mastitis, or lactational mastitis.
When it occurs in non breastfeeding women it is known as non-puerperal or nonlactational. Mastitis can, in rare cases, occur in men. The symptoms are similar for puerperal and nonpuerperal mastitis but predisposing factors and treatment can be very different. Some predisposing factors are known but their predictive value is minimal.