Cima c02 study text pdf

It achieves this by offering long-term contracts to renewable energy producers, typically based on the cost of generation of each technology. The goal of feed-in tariffs is to offer cost-based compensation to renewable energy producers, providing price certainty and long-term contracts that help finance renewable energy investments. The tariffs are cima c02 study text pdf designed to decline over time to track and encourage technological change.

Performance-based rates give incentives to producers to maximize the output and efficiency of their project. 50 countries, including Algeria, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Republic of Ireland, Israel, Italy, Kenya, the Republic of Korea, Lithuania, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Pakistan, Portugal, South Africa, Spain, Switzerland, Tanzania, Thailand, Turkey and the United Kingdom. In early 2012 in Spain, the Rajoy administration suspended the feed-in tariff for new projects. A feed-in tariff can differentiate on the basis of marginal cost. Under such a policy the tariff price ranges from some level slightly above the spot rate to the price required to obtain the optimal level of production determined by the government. Firms with lower marginal costs receive prices on the lower end of the spectrum that increase their revenue but not by as much as under the uniform feed-in tariff. The more marginal producers face the higher tariff price.

This version of the policy has two objectives. The first is to reduce the profitability of certain production cites. Many renewable sources are highly dependent on their location. For example, windmills are most profitable in windy locations, and solar plants are best at sunny locations. This means that generators tend to be concentrated at these most profitable sites.

This, however, leads to a less cost-effective production of renewable electricity as the most efficient sites are under-utilized. Under the uniform tariff all producers receive the same price which is at times in gross excess of the price needed to incentivize them to produce. The additional revenue translates into profit. Overall, and in light of incipient globalization, feed-in tariffs are posing increasing problems from the point of view of trade, as their implementation in one country can easily affect industries and policies of others, thus requiring an ideally global coordination of treatment and imposition of such policy instrument, which could be reached at the World Trade Organization. There are three methods of compensation.

FIT is reduced to the retail rate. Credits typically roll over to future periods. Within PURPA was a provision that required utilities to purchase electricity generated from qualifying independent power producers at rates not to exceed their avoided cost. Avoided costs were designed to reflect the cost that a utility would incur to provide that same electrical generation. Different interpretations of PURPA prevailed in the 1980s: some utilities and state utility commissions interpreted avoided costs narrowly to mean avoided fuel costs, while others chose to define “avoided costs” as the “avoided long-run marginal cost” of generation. The long-run costs referred to the anticipated cost of electricity in the years ahead. This last approach was adopted by California in its Standard Offer Contract No.

To comply with PURPA, some states began offering Standard Offer Contracts to producers. California’s Public Utility Commission established a number of Standard Offer Contracts, including Standard Offer No. This led to an escalating schedule of fixed purchase prices, designed to reflect the long-run avoided costs of new electrical generation. By 1992, private power producers had installed approximately 1,700 MW of wind capacity in California, some of which is still in service today.

The adoption of PURPA also led to significant renewable energy generation in states such as Florida, and Maine. This notwithstanding, PURPA retains negative connotations in the U. When oil and gas prices plummeted in the late 1980s, the Standard Offer Contracts that were signed to encourage new renewable energy development seemed high by comparison. As a result, PURPA contracts came to be seen as an expensive burden on electricity ratepayers. Another source of opposition to PURPA stemmed from the fact that it was designed to encourage non-utility generation.

This was interpreted as a threat by many large utilities, particularly monopolistic suppliers. As a result of its encouragement of non-utility generation, PURPA has also been interpreted as an important step toward increasing competition. Law on Feeding Electricity into the Grid”. The StrEG required utilities to purchase electricity generated from renewable energy suppliers at a percentage of the prevailing retail price of electricity. A project cap of 5 MW was included. While Germany’s StrEG was insufficient to encourage costlier technologies such as photovoltaics, it proved relatively effective at encouraging lower-cost technologies such as wind, leading to the deployment of 4,400 MW of new wind capacity between 1991 and 1999, representing approximately one third of the global capacity at the time. An additional challenge that StrEG addressed was the right to interconnect to the grid.

The StrEG guaranteed renewable electricity producers grid access. The long title is an act on granting priority to renewable energy sources. In its new form, the act proved to be a highly effective policy framework for accelerating the deployment of renewables. Other countries followed the German approach.

Facebook Comments